With Donald Trump as the president elect and Republicans holding a majority in the U.S. House and Senate, GOP tax reform appears likely in 2017. While campaigning, Mr. Trump promised big tax changes. Here’s a digest of his proposals, according to his website.
Individual Tax Rates and Capital Gains Taxes
For individuals, President-elect Trump proposes fewer tax brackets and lower top rates: 12%, 25% and 33% — versus the current rates of 10%, 15%, 25%, 28%, 33%, 35%, and 39.6%. The tax rates on long-term capital gains would be kept at the current 0%, 15% and 20%.
Proposed Rate Brackets for Married-Joint Filing Couples
|Taxable Income||Rate Bracket|
|Less than $75,000||12%|
|More than $75,000 but less than $225,000||25%|
|More than $225,000||33%|
Proposed Rate Brackets for Unmarried Individuals
|Taxable Income||Rate Bracket|
|$0 to $37,500||12%|
|More than $37,500 but less than $112,500||25%|
|More than $112,500||33%|
The proposed plan would eliminate the head of household filing status, which could prove to be a controversial idea.
President-elect Trump would abolish the alternative minimum tax (AMT) on individual taxpayers.
Itemized/ Standard Deductions and Personal/ Dependent Exemptions
The president-elect’s plan would cap itemized deductions at $200,000 for married joint-filing couples and $100,000 for unmarried individuals.
The standard deduction for joint filers would be increased to $30,000 (up from $12,700 for 2017 under current law). For unmarried individuals, the standard deduction would be increased to $15,000 (up from $6,350).
The personal and dependent exemption deductions would be eliminated.
Child and Dependent Care
Proposed new deduction: The Trump plan would create a new “above-the-line” deduction (meaning you don’t have to itemize to benefit) for expenses on up to four children under age 13. In addition, it would cover eldercare expenses for dependents. The deduction wouldn’t be allowed to a married couple with total income above $500,000 or a single taxpayer with income above $250,000. The childcare deduction would be available to paid caregivers and families who use stay-at-home parents or grandparents to provide care. The deduction for eldercare would be capped at $5,000 annually, with inflation adjustments.
Rebates for child care expenses: The proposed Trump Plan would offer new rebates for childcare expenses to certain low-income taxpayers through the Earned Income Tax Credit. The rebate would equal 7.65% of eligible childcare expenses, subject to a cap equal to half of the federal employment taxes withheld from a taxpayer’s paychecks. The rebate would be available to married joint filers earning $62,400 or less and singles earning $31,200 or less. These ceilings would be adjusted for inflation annually.
Dependent care savings accounts: Under the proposed plan, taxpayers could establish new Dependent Care Savings Accounts for the benefit of specific individuals, including unborn children. Annual contributions to one of these accounts would be limited to $2,000. When established for a child, funds remaining in the account when the child reaches age 18 could be used for education expenses, but additional contributions couldn’t be made. To encourage lower-income families to establish these accounts for their children, the government would provide a 50% match for parental contributions of up to $1,000 per year. Dependent Care Savings Account earnings would be exempt from federal income tax.
Affordable Care Act Taxes
President-elect Trump wants to repeal the Affordable Care Act and the tax increases and employer penalties that it imposes — including the 3.8% Medicare surtax on net investment income and the 0.9% Medicare surtax on wages and self-employment income.
His plan would also abolish the federal estate tax. But it would hit accrued capital gains that are outstanding at death with a capital gains tax, subject to a $10 million exemption.
Business Tax Changes
The president-elect proposes major changes to the taxes paid by businesses. Trump would cut the corporate tax rate from the current 35% to 15%, but eliminate tax deferral on overseas profits.
Under the proposed plan, a one-time 10% tax rate would be allowed for repatriated corporate cash that has been held overseas where it’s not subject to U.S. income tax under current rules.
The plan would also allow the same 15% tax rate for business income from sole proprietorships and business income passed through to individuals from S corporations, LLCs, and partnerships, which could cause a significant decrease in tax revenues.
Without getting very specific, the proposed plan proposes the elimination of “most” corporate tax breaks other than the Research and Development (R&D) credit. At-risk tax breaks could include unlimited deductions for interest expense and a bevy of other write-offs and credits.
On the other hand, the proposed Trump plan would allow manufacturing firms to immediately write off their capital investments in lieu of deducting interest expense.
What about Congress?
In addition to President-elect Trump’s proposed plan, House Republicans released the “Better Way Tax Reform Blueprint” earlier this year and Republicans in the Senate proposed their own tax plans. These proposals — which in some cases, differ from Trump’s — would make numerous changes to cut taxes and simplify filing. Despite some differences, members of Congress have expressed support for Trump’s plans and have vowed to act quickly.
When Might Changes Happen?
Democrats in Washington are likely to oppose any meaningful tax cuts, and they can attempt to stall things in the Senate where the Republicans won’t have a filibuster-proof majority. However, the Republicans can use the same procedural tactics that the Democrats used in 2010 to enact the Affordable Care Act. It’s possible that Trump’s tax plan (or parts of it) may pass in the first 100 days of his new presidency. If that happens, we could see major tax changes taking effect as early as next year. Stay tuned.
© Copyright 2016.
|On October 5, 2016, the IRS released new temporary and final Section 752 regulations. Sec. 752 of the Internal Revenue Code and related regulations explain how to allocate partnership debt among partners for purposes of calculating the basis of their partnership interests. This calculation determines what’s often referred to as the partners’ “outside basis” in the partnership (their basis for deducting losses and receiving tax-free distributions). In some situations, the new regulations make it more difficult for partnerships to manipulate the rules to increase the outside basis of certain partners for tax planning purposes. In most situations, however, the effects of the new regulations are neutral.|
Here are the most important changes included in the new Sec. 752 regulations — and how they may affect your investments in partnerships and limited liability companies (LLCs).
Why Sec. 752 Matters
A partner’s share of partnership liabilities, as determined under the Sec. 752 rules, is added to the partner’s outside basis. That gives the partner more room to deduct partnership losses and/or receive tax-free partnership distributions.
However, a reduction in a partner’s share of partnership liabilities, as determined under the Sec. 752 rules, is treated as a deemed cash distribution that reduces the partner’s outside basis. A reduction can trigger a taxable gain to the extent the deemed distribution — along with actual cash distributions and actual distributions of certain marketable securities — exceeds the partner’s outside basis.
For these reasons, the Sec. 752 rules are important. In general, these rules apply equally to LLCs that are treated as partnerships for federal tax purposes. For simplicity, this article uses the terms 1) “partnership” to refer more generally to both partnerships and LLCs that are treated as partnerships for tax purposes, and 2) “partner” to refer more generally to the owners of those entities (partners and LLC members).
How to Define a “Payment Obligation”
IRS temporary regulations typically have the same authority as final regulations. As such, they are in force as of the specified effective date. However, temporary regulations may be amended before being reissued as final regulations, with a new effective date for any changes.
A new temporary regulation issued in October clarifies when a partner is considered to have a payment obligation with respect to a partnership recourse debt for purposes of allocating that debt among the partners under the Sec. 752 rules. (Recourse debt is debt for which the borrower is personally liable — the lender can collect what is owed beyond any collateral.)
Without having a payment obligation with respect to a recourse liability, a partner generally can’t be allocated any basis from that liability under the Sec. 752 rules. However, in some cases, a partner can be allocated basis from a recourse liability when a taxpayer related to the partner has a payment obligation with respect to that liability.
The new guidance stipulates that the determination of the extent to which a partner or related person has a payment obligation with respect to a recourse liability is based on the facts and circumstances at the time of the determination. It also lists some specific factors that should be considered.
To the extent that the obligation of a partner or related person to make a payment with respect to a partnership recourse liability is not recognized under this rule, the payment obligation is ignored for purposes of allocating that debt to that partner under the Sec. 752 rules. All statutory and contractual obligations relating to the payment obligation are considered in applying this rule.
The new clarification of payment obligations with respect to partnership recourse debts generally applies to liabilities incurred or assumed by a partnership on or after October 5, 2016. It also applies to payment obligations imposed or undertaken with respect to a partnership liability, other than liabilities incurred or assumed by a partnership and payment obligations imposed or undertaken pursuant to a written binding contract in effect prior to that date.
A partnership can, however, elect to apply all the new rules to all of its liabilities as of the beginning of the first taxable year of the partnership that ends on or after October 5, 2016 (calendar year 2016 for a calendar year partnership). A special transitional rule allows the impact of the new rules to be postponed for up to seven years in some situations when the new rules would be harmful to a partner.
Important note: This temporary regulation is basically neutral in its effect on partners.
How to Handle Guarantees of Recourse Debt and Exculpatory Liabilities
Another new temporary regulation creates a new term called “bottom-dollar payment obligation.” For purposes of allocating recourse liabilities among partners under the Sec. 752 rules, a bottom-dollar payment obligation isn’t recognized. That means it’s ignored for purposes of allocating the entity’s recourse liabilities under the Sec. 752 rules.
In this context, so-called exculpatory liabilities are treated as recourse debts. Exculpatory liabilities are debts that are secured by all partnership property. Therefore, they’re effectively recourse to the partnership, even though no partner is personally liable.
The new guidance also requires partnerships to disclose to the IRS all bottom-dollar payment obligations for the tax year in which the bottom-dollar payment obligation is undertaken or modified.
Important note: The new rules for bottom-dollar payment obligations are primarily aimed at LLCs treated as partnerships for tax purposes that use member guarantees of exculpatory liabilities. Guarantees of LLC exculpatory liabilities have been used “creatively” to increase the basis of certain LLC members in their membership interests (outside basis). The IRS doesn’t look kindly on these types of arrangements, and the new rules make it more difficult to use them for tax planning purposes. As such, the new rules are unfavorable to taxpayers.
Limited liability partnerships (LLPs) can also have exculpatory liabilities. But LLPs are unlikely to have bottom-dollar payment obligation arrangements, because LLPs are most often used simply to operate professional practices. In contrast, some LLCs have been used as “creative” tax-planning vehicles.
Exculpatory liabilities aren’t relevant in the context of garden-variety general or limited partnerships, because one or more of their general partners will always be personally liable for partnership recourse debts.
The same effective date and transitional relief rules that apply to the updated definition of payment obligations with respect to recourse debts also apply to the new rules regarding bottom-dollar payment obligations.
How to Allocate Excess Nonrecourse Liabilities
Under the Sec. 752 rules, partnerships must allocate nonrecourse liabilities among the partners using a three-tiered procedure. The last tier applies to so-called excess nonrecourse liabilities, which are allocated according to the partners’ percentage shares of partnership profits.
Effective for partnership liabilities incurred or assumed on or after October 5, 2016 — subject to an exception for pre-existing binding contracts — a new final regulation stipulates that the partnership agreement can specify the partners’ percentage interests in partnership profits for purposes of allocating excess nonrecourse liabilities.
But the specified percentages must be reasonably consistent with valid allocations of some other significant item of partnership income or gain. This is often referred to as the “significant item method” of allocating excess nonrecourse liabilities.
The new regulation also allows two other alternative methods of allocating excess nonrecourse liabilities. Moreover, excess nonrecourse liabilities aren’t required to be allocated under the same method each year.
Important note: This new final regulation is basically neutral in its effect on determining the outside basis of partners.
Where to Find Additional Information
This is only a brief summary of the key changes under the new temporary and final Sec. 752 regulations. You can e-mail WFY at firstname.lastname@example.org for full details on how the new rules might affect your partnership (or LLC) and its partners (or members).
© Copyright 2016.